Shared Language

Force Field Analysis

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Tool 16

Aim of the tool: 
To identify and assess the strengths of the various forces influencing a desired change both supportive and restraining

When to use it?
This tool can be used at the design or evaluation state of an intervention or for decision making on organizational changes 

Trendline

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Tool 23

Aim of the tool
To promote participatory reflection and exploration on participants’ perceptions of changes which have occurred over time.

When to use it?
On early phases of a MSP: Issue exploration and Shared language

Friends and Strangers

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Tool 22

Aim of the tool
To playfully illustrate how small changes in rules can have a big impact on a complex adaptive system.

When to use it?
For example, in the Divergent phase, when perspectives on the issue at hand are broadening. Especially when discussing the nature of systemic change.

Cynefin Framework

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Tool 21

Aim of the tool
To help participants understand the level of complexity of a situation and to explore the implications for intervention strategies.

When to use it?
This tool can be used in different phases of an MSP, but particularly at a moment when strategies for change are discussed.

Stakeholder Characteristics and Roles Matrix

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Tool 10

Aim of the tool
Analyse the most important stakeholders by focusing on their characteristics and roles.  

When to use it?
Issue exploration and shared language stage, to foster a better understanding of the issue at stake.

Visual Reminders

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Tool 20

Aim of the tool
To visualize information and ideas in an organized and creative way.

When to use it?
It can be used at any stage as part of group work or individual reflection.

Delphi

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Tool 19

Aim of the tool
To explore and clarify issues, identify areas of agreement and disagreement, and try to reach a consensus among experts on the issue at stake.

When to use it?
In the early phases of an MSP to clarify specific issues, or in a later phase to make a well-considered decision based on detailed examinations of possible options.

SWOT analysis

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Tool 18

Aim of the tool
To set achievable goals by identifying the key internal and external factors seen as important to achieving them.

When to use it?
Appropriate in many phases of an MSP. In particular, for strategy formulation and review/M&E. 

Context Immersions

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Tool 17

Aim of the tool
To immerse in stakeholders’ work or daily routines, in order to have an in depth examination of their perspectives and experiences. This provides new insights and informal intuition. 

When to use it?
Shared language phase - to build understanding of the realities of particular stakeholder groups. 

Problem Tree

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Tool 14

Aim of the tool
Create a structural analysis of the causes and effects of an issue or problem.

When to use it?
Problem tree analysis is very useful in planning processes. It fits well in the Shared Language stage of MSPs.