Shifting Power

Equity, power games and legitimacy: dilemmas of participatory learning processes


Authors : Cécile Barnaud and Annemarie Van Paassen

Publication Date :  July 2010

Designers of participatory learning processes in heterogeneous social contexts often encounter problems ranging from claims that the processes and their designers are negatively influenced by powerful stakeholders, to accusations of illegitimate interventions in social settings where some stakeholders are empowered relative to others.

Empowerment and Poverty Reduction: A Sourcebook


Author(s): Deepa Narayan, Senior Adviser, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management

Publication Date:  May 1, 2002

This book defines the World Bank’s approach to empowerment for economic growth and poverty reduction. It also discusses  the World Bank’s social development  strategy. The book presents first the theoretical underpinnings of the concept of empowerment, before examining how to apply this theory in practice, also discussing the lessons learned from analysing previous empowerment-focused projects.

Disadvantaged Groups in Multi-stakeholder Negotiations


Authors: David Edmunds and Eva Wollenberg

Publication Date: June 2002

Negotiations are seen to be of vital importance by environmental and development practitioners when guiding natural resource stakeholders towards collective action on natural resource sustainability. Aimed at practitioners of multi-stakeholder negotiation processes, this paper examines how power differences can result in disadvantaged groups of stakeholders not maximising the benefits of negotiations and discusses the issue under the following headings: